What is DBMS (Database Management System)?

  • By Riya Kashyap
  • 23 March 2023
database management system

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DBMS is an essential technology that enables organisations to store, manage, and retrieve large amounts of data efficiently and securely. It stands for Database Management System. It is a foundational technology that supports many critical business processes and enables data-driven decision-making.

To pursue a career in DBMS technology, you typically need an MCA Degree in computer science, information technology, or a related field. It is recommended that before opting for the course one must go through the MCA syllabus for a better understanding of the field. 

What is DBMS? 

DBMS is an organised collection of data which is managed through a computer system. The users of these systems are allowed to access, manipulate and manage the data according to their needs with the help of various software programs. 

There are a number of DBMS definitions but, in simple terms, it is a software system that allows users to create, define, maintain and control access to a database management system. Examples of DBMS are MySQL, Microsoft SQL, Oracle and Microsoft Access.

Why is DBMS Important? 

A database management system (DBMS) is an essential component of many modern computer systems, and there are several reasons why it is important:

  1. A DBMS provides a systematic and organized way to manage and store data. It allows data to be easily retrieved, updated, and analysed, making it a critical tool for businesses and organisations.
  2. A DBMS provides various security mechanisms to protect sensitive data from unauthorised access, modification, and deletion. This is crucial for maintaining the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data.
  3. This system ensures that data is consistent across all applications that use it. This means that if data is updated in one part of the system, it will automatically be updated in all other parts, avoiding conflicts and discrepancies.
  4. A DBMS allows multiple users to access and manipulate the same data simultaneously without interfering with each other's work. This is essential for collaborative projects and applications that require simultaneous data access.
  5. A DBMS can scale to handle large amounts of data and support thousands of concurrent users. This is crucial for organizations that have to handle a growing volume of data and need to support more users over time.

Types of DBMS

There are several types of database management systems (DBMS) available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Here are some of the most common types:

  • Relational DBMS (RDBMS)

This is the most widely used type of DBMS, which organizes data into tables with rows and columns. RDBMS uses SQL (Structured Query Language) to interact with data and is widely used in business applications.

  • Object-Oriented DBMS (OODBMS)

This type of DBMS stores data in the form of objects, which are organized into classes and have attributes and methods. OODBMS is useful for applications that work with complex data structures.

  • Document DBMS

This type of DBMS stores data in a document format, such as JSON or XML. Document DBMS is useful for applications that work with unstructured data.

  • Key-Value DBMS

This type of DBMS stores data in a key-value pair format, where each value is associated with a unique key. Key-value DBMS is useful for applications that require high-speed data access.

  • Graph DBMS

This type of DBMS stores data in a graph format, where data is represented as nodes and edges. Graph DBMS is useful for applications that work with complex relationships between data.

  • Time-series DBMS

This type of DBMS stores data that changes over time, such as stock prices or sensor data. Time-series DBMS is useful for applications that require real-time data processing.

The Most Widely used DBMS 

The most widely used database management system (DBMS) is the relational database management system (RDBMS). It organises data into tables with rows and columns and uses SQL (Structured Query Language) to interact with data. 

Some of the most popular RDBMSs include Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, and SQLite. RDBMSs are widely used in various industries, including finance, healthcare, manufacturing, and e-commerce, among others.

What is SQL? 

SQL (Structured Query Language) is a standard language used for managing relational databases. It allows users to create, update, delete, and query data in a database. 

Some of the basic SQL commands include

  • SELECT: Used to retrieve data from a database table.
  • INSERT: Used to insert new data into a database table.
  • UPDATE: Used to update existing data in a database table.
  • DELETE: Used to delete data from a database table.
  • CREATE: Used to create a new database table, index, or view.
  • DROP: Used to delete a database table, index, or view.

SQL is a powerful language that allows users to manipulate large amounts of data efficiently. It is used by database administrators, software developers, and data analysts to perform a wide range of tasks related to data management and analysis.

Advantages of DBMS 

There are several advantages to using a database management system (DBMS):

  • It provides a centralized location to store data, making it easier to integrate data from multiple sources. This results in improved data consistency and accuracy.
  • It allows multiple users to access and manipulate the same data simultaneously, improving collaboration and reducing the risk of data duplication.
  • It provides various security mechanisms to protect sensitive data from unauthorized access, modification, and deletion. This includes access controls, user authentication, and data encryption.
  • It enforces data integrity rules, ensuring that data is accurate, consistent, and complete. This is achieved through the use of constraints, triggers, and referential integrity.
  • It can scale to handle large amounts of data and support thousands of concurrent users. This is crucial for organizations that have to handle a growing volume of data and need to support more users over time.
  • It provides backup and recovery mechanisms, allowing users to recover data in the event of a disaster or system failure.

Disadvantages of DBMS 

While there are many advantages to using a database management system (DBMS), there are also some disadvantages to consider:

  • DBMSs can be complex and difficult to set up and configure, requiring skilled professionals to manage them effectively.
  • It can be expensive, both in terms of the software itself and the hardware needed to run it. This can be a significant barrier to entry for small businesses or individuals.
  • It requires ongoing maintenance and support, which can add to the overall cost of ownership. This includes tasks such as backups, upgrades, and performance tuning.
  • While DBMSs provide security mechanisms to protect data, they can also be vulnerable to security breaches if not configured and managed properly. This includes attacks such as SQL injection, data theft, and unauthorised access.
  • Organizations that rely heavily on their DBMS can become dependent on it, making it difficult to switch to a different system if necessary.
  • DBMSs can have performance issues if not optimized properly. This can result in slow query response times and other performance problems.

Comparison Between DBMS and Flat File 


Flat File Management System 

Allows multi-user access 

Does not allow multi-user access 

Designed to fulfil the need of small and large businesses

Limited to smaller DBMS Systems 

Effectively removes redundancy 

Have persistent redundancy and integrity issues 

Are expensive, but eventually, the total cost of ownership is cheap  

It is cheaper 

Easily implements complicated transactions 

No support for complicated transactions 

Popular DBMS Software 

Some of the popular Database management system software are listed below- 



Operating System

Written In



Canonical, FreeBSD, Linux, MacOS, Solaris and Windows

C and C++

Microsoft SQL Server 


Linux and Windows 

C and C++

Oracle DBMS 

Multi-model DBMS 

AIX, BS2000, HP-UX, Linux, MacOS and Windows

Assembly Language, C and C++


Document-oriented database

FreeBSD, Linux, MacOS and Windows

C++, Javascript and Python 

SQ Lite 


Android, BSD, iOS, Linux, MacOS, Solaris, VxWorks and Windows


Applications of DBMS 

DBMS (Database Management System) is a software system that allows organizations to manage, store, retrieve, and analyze large amounts of data efficiently. It has numerous applications in today's world, some of which are listed below:

Work Sector 



Used to manage online stores, track orders, process payments, and manage inventory.

Healthcare Sector 

Used to store and manage electronic health records, which can be accessed by doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals.

Banking and Finance

Used to manage financial transactions, such as loans, investments, and customer accounts.

Education Sector 

Used to manage student information, such as enrollment, grades, and attendance records.


Used to manage transportation schedules, routes, and passenger information.

Social media

DBMS is used to manage user profiles, posts, comments, and other social media content.

Government Sector

Used to manage citizen information, such as tax records, voting records, and demographic data.


Used to manage supply chain information, such as shipping schedules, warehouse inventory, and product tracking.


is Used to manage product information, such as pricing, inventory, and customer orders.


Used to manage hotel reservations, room availability, and customer data.

Future of DBMS

An MCA Course can likely help you gain expertise in database management systems as it has an augmenting scope in future. Before applying to this course one must check out things to know before opting for MCA

The future of database management systems is likely to be shaped by several emerging technologies and trends. Here are some of the key areas that are likely to impact the future of DBMS:

  1. Cloud Computing- Cloud-based databases have become increasingly popular in recent years due to their scalability, cost-effectiveness, and ease of use. This trend is expected to continue as more organisations shift their data storage and management to the cloud.
  2. AI and Machine Learning-  AI and ML are poised to revolutionise the way data is managed and analysed. DBMS will need to become smarter and more efficient to handle the large volumes of data generated by AI and ML applications.
  3. Blockchain-  Blockchain technology is being explored for its potential to create distributed and decentralised databases that offer enhanced security and privacy. DBMS will need to evolve to integrate with blockchain technology and provide secure and efficient storage and management of blockchain data.
  4. Hybrid DBMS: As organisations continue to use both on-premise and cloud-based infrastructure, hybrid DBMS will become more prevalent. These systems will need to seamlessly integrate with both on-premise and cloud-based databases to provide a unified view of data.

Altogether, the future of DBMS is likely to be shaped by the convergence of these and other emerging technologies, as well as the ongoing demands for greater scalability, performance, security, and flexibility. DBMS vendors will need to continue to innovate and adapt to remain competitive in an increasingly complex and dynamic market.


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FAQ- Database Management System

What are the features of DBMS?

Features of DBMS are listed below-

  • Minimum Redundancy and Duplication
  • Saves storage space and cost 
  • Provides a high level of security 
  • Gives multi-user access

What is normalisation in DBMS? 

Normalisation in DBMS refers to the reduction in redundancies. It is also used to overcome, insert or delete anomalies. 

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