What is Deep Learning and How Does It Works

  • By Riya Kashyap
  • 28 March 2023
deep learning

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The introduction of deep learning in technology has led to significant advances in fields such as computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, robotics, and autonomous systems. It has enabled computers to perform complex tasks with greater accuracy and efficiency and has opened up new possibilities for innovation and discovery. 

The development of deep learning has also created new career opportunities in fields like data science and machine learning and is driving research and development in many areas of technology and therefore is among the best-paying jobs in technology

A BCA Degree in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning can help you get a deeper understanding of the field and pursue a professional career in deep learning technology. 

What is Deep Learning? 

Deep Learning is a subfield of machine learning that involves creating artificial neural networks that are capable of learning and making decisions in a way that mimics the human brain. It involves training these neural networks on large sets of data, using complex algorithms to recognise patterns and make predictions or classifications based on new input. 

Essentially, it's a way of teaching computers to recognise and interpret data in a way that is similar to how humans do it. This technology is behind many cutting-edge applications, from image and speech recognition to self-driving cars and natural language processing.

Why is Deep learning important? 

Deep learning is considered an important asset as it has revolutionised the field of artificial intelligence by enabling machines to learn from large and complex datasets, extract patterns, and make accurate predictions or decisions. Here are some key reasons why deep learning is important:

  • Solving Complex Problems: Deep learning has been successful in solving complex problems in various domains such as computer vision, natural language processing, speech recognition, and robotics.
  • Accuracy and Efficiency: Deep learning algorithms have proven to be more accurate and efficient than traditional machine learning algorithms. They can handle large datasets, make complex decisions, and adapt to changing data.
  • Automation: Deep learning models can automate many tasks that were previously performed by humans, such as image recognition, speech recognition, and language translation.
  • Personalisation: Deep learning can provide personalised recommendations and services by learning from the behaviour and preferences of individual users.
  • Innovation: It has opened up new avenues for innovation and research in artificial intelligence, leading to advancements in areas such as autonomous driving, healthcare, and finance.

How Does Deep Learning Work? 

Deep learning works by building complex neural networks that are capable of learning from data and making predictions or decisions. These neural networks are composed of multiple layers of interconnected nodes, each layer responsible for extracting and transforming certain features from the input data.

Here's an example of how deep learning works:

Let's say we want to build a deep-learning model that can recognise images of cats and dogs. We would start by collecting a large dataset of labelled images of cats and dogs, which we would use to train our model.

We would then design a neural network with multiple layers, each layer consisting of multiple nodes or neurons. The first layer of the network would take the raw image data as input, and each subsequent layer would extract and transform increasingly complex features from the input data. For example, the first layer might detect edges and corners, the second layer might identify shapes and textures, and the third layer might recognise patterns such as eyes and noses.

Once the neural network is designed, we will train it on the labelled dataset of cat and dog images. During training, the model adjusts the weights of each neuron to minimise the difference between its predicted output and the actual label of each image in the training dataset. This process is called backpropagation, and it allows the model to learn from its mistakes and improve its accuracy over time.

Once the model is trained, we can use it to make predictions on new, unseen images of cats and dogs. We would simply feed the raw image data into the neural network, and it would output a probability score for each class (cat or dog). We can then use these probability scores to make a prediction about the class of the image.

In summary, deep learning works by building complex neural networks that can learn from data and make predictions or decisions. By training these models on large labelled datasets, we can teach them to recognise patterns and make accurate predictions on new, unseen data.

Deep Learning Vs Machine Learning 

Both Deep learning and machine learning are subsets of artificial intelligence, but there are some key differences between them. Here is the list of differences between deep learning and machine learning-


Deep learning

Machine learning 


More Complex 

Less Complex

Data Requirements

Require a large amount of labelled data to train effectively

Can work with smaller datasets.

Feature Engineering

Can learn features directly from the raw data, without the need for manual feature engineering.

Require manual feature engineering, where domain experts identify relevant features and preprocess the data before training the model.


Outperforms traditional machine learning algorithms

Average Performance 

Applications of Deep Learning

Deep learning has numerous applications across various fields. Here are some examples of how deep learning is being used in real-world applications-

  • Computer Vision: Deep learning has revolutionised computer vision by enabling machines to recognise and analyse images and videos. Applications include self-driving cars, facial recognition, object detection, and medical imaging.
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP): It has significantly improved the accuracy of natural languages processing tasks such as language translation, sentiment analysis, chatbots, and voice recognition.
  • Robotics: In robotics, deep learning is used to enable robots to navigate and interact with their environment. Applications include autonomous drones, warehouse automation, and industrial robotics.
  • Healthcare: It is being used in healthcare for tasks such as diagnosis, medical image analysis, drug discovery, and personalised medicine.
  • Finance: It is being used in finance for tasks such as fraud detection, risk management, and algorithmic trading.
  • Gaming: Deep learning is being used in gaming to improve game AI, create more realistic game environments, and enhance the player experience.
  • Marketing: Deep learning is being used in marketing for tasks such as customer segmentation, personalised recommendations, and predictive analytics.

Career Prospects in Deep Learning

Deep learning is a rapidly growing field with many career opportunities and competitive salaries, including in India. Following are some of the career prospects and salaries in deep learning- 

  • Deep Learning Engineer: A deep learning engineer is responsible for designing and developing deep learning models and systems. They typically have a strong background in computer science, machine learning, and mathematics. The average salary for a deep learning engineer in India is around ₹1,399,000 per year.
  • Data Scientist: Data scientists use statistical and machine learning techniques to analyse large datasets and extract insights. They may use deep learning models as part of their analysis. The average salary for a data scientist in India is around ₹790,000 per year.
  • Research Scientist: Research scientists work on cutting-edge research projects to develop new deep-learning techniques and algorithms. They typically have a PhD in computer science, machine learning, or a related field. The average salary for a research scientist in India is around ₹1,086,000 per year.
  • Machine Learning Engineer: Machine learning engineers are responsible for developing and deploying machine learning models in production systems. They may also work with deep learning models as part of their work. The average salary for a machine learning engineer in India is around ₹900,000 per year.


Overall, Deep learning is a promising field of technology that offers a wide range of career opportunities and competitive advantages. With the emergence of top new technology trends, the career aspects in deep learning and machine learning have also increased. Sunstone can help you learn the concepts of deep learning and gain hands-on experience with the latest technologies to build a skilful portfolio that will be noticeable to recruiters. With Sunstone you can engage in a capstone project every semester and be a part of the student learning community. 

FAQ- Deep Learning 

Why is deep learning used?

Deep learning is used because it is a powerful subset of machine learning that can handle large and complex datasets and can learn to identify patterns and make predictions with high accuracy.

Why is it called deep learning?

It is called deep learning because it uses artificial neural networks that have multiple layers, which enables them to learn and extract high-level features from data. The term "deep" refers to the depth of these networks, which can have hundreds or even thousands of layers.

What is an example of deep learning?

An example of deep learning is image recognition, where convolutional neural networks are used to extract features from images and classify them into different categories with high accuracy. Another example is natural language processing, where recurrent neural networks are used to understand and generate human-like language.

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